What Is Medicine? Definition, Fields, And Branches

Psychiatry is the department of medicine concerned with the bio-psycho-social research of the etiology, prognosis, treatment and prevention of cognitive, perceptual, emotional and behavioral problems. Related non-medical fields embody psychotherapy and medical psychology. Podiatric medicine is the research of, analysis, and medical & surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle, decrease limb, hip and lower again.

In many instances these supplies were used ritually as magical substances by monks, shamans, or medicine men. The field of medical anthropology examines the ways in which tradition and society are organized around or impacted by problems with well being, health care and associated points. Doctors who are negligent or deliberately harmful in their care of sufferers can face costs of medical malpractice and be topic to civil, felony, or skilled sanctions.

Pathology as a medical specialty is the department of medicine that deals with the study of diseases and the morphologic, physiologic changes produced by them. As a diagnostic specialty, pathology could be thought of the basis of recent scientific medical data and plays a large function in proof-primarily based medicine.

He wrote The Canon of Medicine which turned a regular medical text at many medieval European universities, considered one of the famous books in the history of drugs. Others embody Abulcasis, Avenzoar, Ibn al-Nafis, and Averroes. Persian physician Rhazes was one of many first to query the Greek concept of humorism, which nevertheless remained influential in each medieval Western and medieval Islamic medicine.

Podiatric medicine is the examine of, analysis, and medical remedy of disorders of the foot, ankle, decrease limb, hip and lower back. Hospice and Palliative Medicine is a relatively modern department of clinical medicine that offers with ache and symptom aid and emotional support in sufferers with terminal illnesses together with most cancers and coronary heart failure.

  • SpecialistMedical specialtyGlossaryGlossary of medicineMedicine is the science and follow of building the analysis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of illness.
  • These include treatment of acute and persistent sicknesses, preventive care and health schooling for all ages and each sexes.
  • Medicine encompasses quite a lot of health care practices evolved to take care of and restore health by the prevention and treatment of sickness.

After 750 CE, the Muslim world had the works of Hippocrates, Galen and Sushruta translated into Arabic, and Islamic physicians engaged in some vital medical research. Notable Islamic medical pioneers include the Persian polymath, Avicenna, who, along with Imhotep and Hippocrates, has also been referred to as the “father of drugs”.


Many modern molecular exams similar to move cytometry, polymerase chain response (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene rearrangements studies and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) fall throughout the territory of pathology. Surgical training in the U.S. requires a minimal of 5 years of residency after medical faculty. Sub-specialties of surgery usually require seven or more years. In addition, fellowships can last an extra one to three years.

The idea of hospital as institution to offer medical care and risk of a remedy for the sufferers as a result of beliefs of Christian charity, somewhat than just merely a place to die, appeared in the Byzantine Empire. In Egypt, Imhotep (3rd millennium BCE) is the first doctor in history recognized by name. The oldest Egyptian medical textual content is the Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus from around 2000 BCE, which describes gynaecological diseases. The Edwin Smith Papyrus courting again to 1600 BCE is an early work on surgery, while the Ebers Papyrus relationship back to 1500 BCE is akin to a textbook on medicine. Prehistoric medicine integrated vegetation (herbalism), animal components, and minerals.

Some volumes of Rhazes’s work Al-Mansuri, namely “On Surgery” and “A General Book on Therapy”, grew to become part of the medical curriculum in European universities. Additionally, he has been described as a health care provider’s doctor, the daddy of pediatrics, and a pioneer of ophthalmology. For instance, he was the primary to acknowledge the reaction of the eye’s pupil to gentle. The Persian Bimaristan hospitals had been an early instance of public hospitals.